Rules & procedures

ByLaws of I-INCE
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Article 1. NAME AND SEAT

The International Institute of Noise Control Engineering (the "Institute") is an international, non-profit, non-governmental, scientific and engineering organization established on the basis of Swiss Civil Law (Schweizerisches Zivilgesetzbuch, Art. 60 ff.). The date of establishment was 1974 October 01. The abbreviation of the name of the Institute shall be "I-INCE".

The seat of the Institute is where the Swiss Acoustical Society (SGA-SSA) has its seat.

Article 2. FIELD OF INTEREST

The field of interest of the Institute shall be noise (unwanted sounds), and vibrations that produce such sounds.

Engineering aspects of the field of interest involve the application of physical means to analyze and optimize the levels of noise and vibration produced by structures, machines, products, systems, and processes. The means of achieving the optimum levels include control of the generation, transmission, and radiation of fluid-borne sound and solid-borne vibration. Optimization includes consideration of scientific and engineering principles as well as socio-economic aspects.

Scientific and socio-economic aspects of the field of interest relate the effects of noise and vibration on individuals and communities to the acoustical environment for human activities. These aspects involve psychological and physiological acoustics, social and economic studies of the response of people to sound and vibration, and cost-benefit analyses of technical options to control noise. Included within the Institute's field of interest are international and national standards, health and safety regulations, ordinances, governmental strategies and policies, and promotion of noise control engineering on a global basis.

Article 3. KEY GOALS

Key Goals of the Institute are to:

  1. Serve as a federation of professional societies of the world that is dedicated to advancing technical developments in the engineering control of noise and vibration; and to
  2. provide a leadership role in promoting the applications of noise and vibration control technology for the benefit of mankind.

To achieve the Key Goals, the Institute recognizes the needs and responsibilities of noise control engineers in all countries. The Institute seeks to unite these engineers in common purpose through close cooperation with their national professional societies with interests in the engineering aspects of noise and vibration control.

Article 4. PRINCIPAL OBJECTIVES

The Principal Objectives of the Institute are international in scope and aim to:

  1. ensure the successful continuation of the annual international congresses on noise control engineering (the INTER-NOISE series) by selecting the venues and the Member Societies that act as hosts, and by overseeing the organization of each congress;
  2. sponsor an annual international congress (INTER-NOISE) via a well-defined process and provide funds to facilitate I-INCE seminars and symposia on particular subjects within the Institute's field of interest;
  3. promote the international exchange of information related to the engineering control of noise and vibration through electronic and non-electronic publications
  4. define long-range noise-control policy goals; develop short and long term initiatives that provide an international consensus toward eventual achievement of these goals; and publish formal and informal documents reporting on technical work related to these issues;
  5. promote international cooperation in research, and in the application of engineering techniques for the control of noise and vibration;
  6. form a link between persons and organizations working on engineering aspects of noise and vibration control and related disciplines, including mechanics, and the psychological and physiological effects of noise and vibration;
  7. establish liaison with other international and regional organizations, as well as governmental bodies, to promote programs and activities that will reduce the harmful or annoying effects of noise and vibration;
  8. promote the recognition of noise control engineering as a technical profession requiring formal education,training and practical experience;
  9. organize workshops for young noise control engineering professionals and facilitate their travel to INTER-NOISE congresses;
  10. encourage the development of educational programs in noise control engineering at educational institutions around the world;
  11. attract qualified persons to the profession by publicizing the achievements of noise control engineers and their contributions to the public welfare;
  12. undertake appropriate programs and activities that advance professionalism in noise control engineering and protect the public health and welfare; and
  13. foster and support the development of public policy, legislation, and governmental practice pertaining to noise and vibration control engineering.
Article 5. MEMBERSHIP

5.1 Members

Members of I-INCE include: Member Societies, Institutional Members, and Sustaining Members. Member Societies are categorized according to the number of their individual members with interest in noise and vibration control. A member society category (size) determines its annual membership fee to the Institute. Criteria for categorization of the Member Societies shall be established by the I-INCE Board of Directors, and, after review and approval by the I-INCE General Assembly, shall be incorporated in the Rules of the Institute.

5.2 Eligibility

Eligibility requirements for membership in I-INCE are:

  1. Member Societies: Not-for-profit professional societies having goals and objectives that are consistent with those of the Institute, provided the societies in turn are open to membership by individual persons.
  2. Institutional Members: Not-for-profit educational institutions and research organizations whose goals and objectives are consistent with those of the Institute.
  3. Sustaining Members: Any organization, corporation, company, or person interested in the work of the Institute.

All applications for membership by professional societies and for changes in membership status by Member Societies shall be reviewed by the Institute's Board of Directors and approved by the General Assembly.

5.3 Termination

Membership in the Institute may be terminated at any time by submittal of a written resignation to the Secretary-General or upon the recommendation of the Board of Directors and approval by the General Assembly.

5.4 Affiliated Organizations

International and regional organizations involved in acoustics and vibration, and in other fields of interest closely related to that of the Institute, may be admitted by the I-INCE Board of Directors as Affiliated Organizations of the Institute.

Each Affiliated Organization may appoint an observer, who may participate in the meetings of the General Assembly without voting privileges. The Board of Directors shall have the reciprocal right to appoint a nonvoting observer to the corresponding council or executive body of the Affiliated Organization.

An Affiliated Organization and the Institute are mutually obliged to keep each other informed when organizing international and regional meetings in order to coordinate such activities to the maximum extent possible.

Affiliated organizations are not required to make annual payments to the Institute.

Article 6. MANAGEMENT OF THE INSTITUTE

The Officers, the Board of Directors, and the General Assembly share responsibilities in the management of the affairs of the Institute in accordance with the Bylaws and Rules of the Institute..

Article 7. SECRETARIAT

The Institute shall establish and operate a Secretariat under the overall direction and supervision of a Secretary-General whose duties are described in Article 9.

The Secretariat shall maintain electronic copies of the records of the meetings of the Board of Directors and the General Assembly. Within six (6) months following a meeting, the Secretariat shall arrange for electronic distribution of the records of a Board meeting to the Officers and Directors and of a meeting of the General Assembly to the designated representatives of the Member Societies of the Institute.

The Secretariat is the headquarters of the Institute with responsibility for relations with the membership and with affiliated and other organizations. Virtually all communication will be via email or web based.

Article 8. BOARD OF DIRECTORS

8.1 Composition

The Board of Directors of the Institute shall be composed of: the Officers of the Institute (the President, the President Elect, the Immediate Past President, one or more Vice Presidents, the Secretary-General, and the Treasurer), three Directors representing the three most recent past INTER-NOISE Congresses, three Directors-at-Large elected by the General Assembly, and Distinguished Board Members. The number of Vice Presidents in office at any one time is not fixed and shall be determined by the Board. All Vice Presidents shall be members of the Board.

The minimum number of Directors shall be twelve (12): the President, the President-Elect, the Immediate Past President, at least one Vice President, the Secretary-General, the Treasurer, three Directors representing the three most recent past INTER-NOISE Congresses, and three Directors-at-Large elected by the General Assembly.

8.2 Vacancy

With the concurrence of the Board, the President may fill a vacancy on the Board, arising at any time and from any cause, with the appointment of a noise control engineer for the unexpired term of the individual vacating the Board. If the vacancy is one of the three Directors-at-Large elected by the General Assembly, the President's appointee shall be from the same geographical region as the individual vacating the Board.

8.3 Distinguished Board Members

The Board may elect an individual as a Distinguished Member of the Board of Directors. The individual shall have made significant contributions to the Institute. Distinguished Board Members serve with vote, and are expected to attend meetings of the Board and General Assembly and/or provide service to the Institute during their term as Distinguished Member.

8.4 Responsibilities of the Board

The Board of Directors shall be responsible for managing and controlling the affairs and property of the Institute, and for specifying the policies of the Institute in a manner consistent with the Bylaws and Rules of the Institute. . The Board shall have the full power to interpret the meaning of any provision of these Bylaws and to adopt rules, not inconsistent with these Bylaws, governing actions that may be taken by the Board or the General Assembly. Rules relating to the responsibilities, operations and actions of the General Assembly shall be approved by the General Assembly.

8.5 Election

A Director representing a previously held INTER-NOISE Congress shall be elected by the Institute's Board of Directors. Election of a Director representing an INTER-NOISE Congress shall be held during the Congress or within six (6) months after the Congress. Each year the General Assembly shall elect one Director-at-Large as described in Article 12 of these Bylaws.

8.6 Candidates

Acting upon the recommendation of the Nominating Committee (see Article 10), a candidate for election as a Director representing the most recent INTER-NOISE Congress shall be invited to serve by the I-INCE President and shall be selected from the members of the Organizing Committee that had primary responsibility for the INTER-NOISE Congress. If no suitable candidate is available from the Organizing Committee, the Board shall elect an alternative candidate. Each year one candidate for a Director-at-Large position shall be elected by the General Assembly.

The President shall request, and the candidates shall provide, written assurance that all candidates will make good-faith efforts to attend all meetings of the Board of Directors and the General Assembly, and to participate in the work of the Board during their term of office.

8.7 Terms of office

The term of office of a Director representing an INTER-NOISE Congress begins on January 01 of the year following the year in which the Congress was held and extends for three (3) years thereafter. The term of office of the three Directors at-large elected by the General Assembly shall be for three years beginning on January 01 of the year following election.

The term of office of a Distinguished Board Member shall be one year. The individual is eligible for re-election.

The longest period of continuous service as a Director, other than as an officer or Distinguished Board Member, shall be six years.

8.8 Meetings

The President shall call at least one meeting of the Board of Directors in every calendar year. This annual meeting shall be held on a date and at a time and place fixed by the President, in consultation with the Secretary General, in conjunction with, and preceding, an INTER-NOISE Congress.

Other meetings of the Board, in person or by telephone or web based means, may be held upon the request of either the President or a majority of the Board at such times and places as the President or the Board may determine.

The Secretary-General shall provide notice of the time, date, and location of Board meetings at least four weeks prior to the meeting. Materials pertaining to substantive matters to come before the Board for action shall be provided to the Board by the Secretary-General at least two weeks prior to the Board meeting at which they will be considered.

Directors must be present at a meeting of the Board to vote on matters before the Board. No proxy voting shall be allowed.

The President, or if the President is unable to be present at a meeting, the presiding officer, shall only vote to break ties. The President/presiding officer may not vote to create a tie vote on an issue before the Board, but may opt to break a tie (but is not obligated to do so).

With agreement by a simple majority of the Directors in office, the Board may conduct an electronic (email or web-based) ballot on a matter before the Board.

8.9 Quorum

A quorum for transaction of business at a meeting of the Board shall be a simple majority of the Directors then in office.

Article 9. OFFICERS OF THE INSTITUTE

9.1 Officers

The officers of the Institute are the President, President Elect, Immediate Past President, the Vice Presidents, the Secretary-General and the Treasurer. Officers serve as Directors during their terms of office.

9.2 Election of Officers

The officers are elected, or re-elected, by a simple majority of the Directors present and voting at an annual meeting of the Board of Directors.

A person currently serving as a Director may be elected a Vice President, while continuing to serve out a term as Director.

9.3 Terms of office

The term of office of the President, the President Elect, and the Immediate Past President shall normally be three (3) years, The term of office of the Secretary-General, and the Treasurer shall normally be four (4) years. In special circumstances, the terms of these officers may be less than four years. The term of office of a Vice President shall normally be three (3) years. Newly elected and reelected officers take office on January 01 of the year following the Board meeting at which they were elected or reelected.

A Vice President is normally eligible for re-election by the Board for one additional term. In exceptional circumstances a Vice President may be re-elected for a third and final term.

The President shall not be eligible for reelection to the office of President, but shall serve on the Board as the Immediate Past President for one term of three years. Subsequently, the Past President may be elected to serve as a Distinguished Board Member, or as a Vice President.

The Board may arrange the terms of the Vice Presidents on a staggered basis, in which case the duration of a Vice President's term may be less than three years. The Secretary-General, and Treasurer may be elected for shorter terms than four (4) years.

An officer's term as Director of the Institute coincides with the term as an officer. The only exception is when a Director is elected a Vice President; then the term of office as Director of the Institute is that of the Director or the Vice President, whichever is longer.

9.4 Removal

Any officer or Director of the Institute may be removed, with or without stated cause, by majority vote of the Directors then in office at any meeting of the Board of Directors at which a quorum exists. The officer or Director under consideration shall not vote on the question of removal.

9.5 Duties of the President

The President shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Institute and shall be so identified as the "CEO". The President presides at all meetings of the Board of Directors and the General Assembly. In the event that the President is temporarily unable to preside at a meeting, the President-Elect shall preside. The President works actively with the Member Societies to carry out the policies and objectives of the Institute with guidance from the General Assembly. The President exercises general charge and supervision of the affairs of the Institute, subject to the policies established by the Board of Directors, the Bylaws and the Rules of the Institute.

The President shall appoint the members of the Nominating Committee (see Article 10), subject to the approval of the Board. All agreements, contracts, and financial obligations shall be reviewed and approved by the President before they are signed by the Secretary-General or Treasurer acting for the Institute. The President shall perform such other duties as may be assigned by the Board of Directors, and shall be an ex officio member of all committees.

The President, Secretary-General, and Treasurer shall conduct the day-to-day business of the Institute with the assistance of the Executive Committee, (see Article 11). In the event the President is temporarily unable to perform their duties, the President-Elect shall temporarily act as the replacement for the President.

In the event that the President-Elect is unable to chair a meeting of the Congress Selection Committee, the President shall serve as the temporary chair of the CSC or shall appoint a current member of the Board to serve as temporary chair.

9.6 Duties of the President Elect

The President Elect is expected to take office at the conclusion of the incumbent President's term. The President Elect also serves as chair of the Congress Selection Committee. Should the President be temporarily unable to perform their duties, the President Elect shall temporarily act as the replacement for the President until such time as the President is able to resume their duties. Should the President be incapacitated and unable to competently discharge the duties of the office of President as determined by the Board, the President Elect shall fulfill these duties for the remainder of the President's term.

9.7 Duties of the Immediate Past President

The Immediate Past President facilitates the transition of Institute leadership to the next President at the beginning of their term, and continues to advise the President when requested. The Immediate Past President also serves as the chair of the nominating committee. In the event that the Immediate Past President is unable to serve as chair of the nominating committee, the President shall appoint a chair from among the current members of the Board.

9.8 Duties of Vice Presidents

Vice Presidents shall have such powers and perform such duties as may be assigned by the Board of Directors. The Vice President's subtitle indicates the area in which duties have been assigned (e.g., Vice President - Communications).

As the Board has authorized the geographical grouping of Member Societies in regions, Vice Presidents shall be elected to represent each region. These regional Vice Presidents coordinate and facilitate communication and interaction between I-INCE and member societies within their region. The regional Vice Presidents serve as members of the Congress Selection Committee.

9.9 Duties of the Secretary-General

The Secretary-General, as the chief administrative officer of the Institute, acting under the direction of the President, is responsible for the general management and administration of the Institute.

The Secretary-General shall be responsible for the operation of the Institute's Secretariat (see Article 7) and shall implement the policies and rules of the Institute as established by the Board of Directors and reviewed by the General Assembly.

9.10 Duties of the Treasurer

The Treasurer, as the chief financial officer of the Institute, acting under the direction of the President, is responsible for the finances of the Institute.

The Treasurer is responsible for all financial records of the Institute, maintains the Institute's bank and investment accounts, prepares a budget for the Institute (see Article 16), and submits annual financial reports to the Board of Directors and the General Assembly. An annual financial report shall contain a balance sheet, a statement of the Institute's income and expenses, a summary of cash receipts and disbursements, and other financial information that may be requested by the Board of Directors or General Assembly. Prior to submittal, annual financial reports shall be audited by an independent auditor.

Article 10. NOMINATING COMMITTEE

The Nominating Committee shall consist of one representative from each of the three geographic areas of the Institute (Asia-Pacific, Europe-Africa and Pan America). The Immediate Past President shall normally chair the nominating committee. The Nominating Committee shall recommend one or more candidates for each of the offices that the Board wishes to fill, and shall ascertain before nomination that a prospective candidate is willing to serve if elected. The members of the Nominating Committee shall be appointed by the President and approved by the Board.

Article 11. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

The Executive Committee shall consist of the President, the President Elect, the Immediate Past President, the Secretary-General, and the Treasurer. The committee shall assist in the handling of administrative and financial matters of the Institute between meetings of the Board and the General Assembly. Actions of the Executive Committee shall be reported in summary form at each meeting of the Board and the General Assembly.

Article 12. GENERAL ASSEMBLY

12.1 Composition

The General Assembly of the Institute shall be composed of the Directors in office at the time of the meeting and the Corresponding Members representing the Member Societies. Both Directors and Corresponding Members have voting rights. Each Member Society shall appoint one of its members to serve as the Corresponding Member to the General Assembly.

Institutional Members, Sustaining Members, and Affiliated Organizations may be represented at meetings of the General Assembly as observers without voting rights.

Any member of a Member Society may attend a meeting of the General Assembly without vote.

12.2 Meetings

The General Assembly shall meet at least once a year, preferably in conjunction with and preceding an INTER-NOISE Congress.

The Secretary-General shall prepare an agenda and issue the call for a meeting of the General Assembly. The agenda and call for meeting shall be distributed by the Secretary-General at least two weeks prior to the meeting. The President shall chair the meeting.

12.3 Responsibilities

The responsibilities of the General Assembly are to:

  1. receive and approve reports from the President and Secretary-General on the activities of the Institute,
  2. receive and approve audited reports from the Treasurer on the financial status of the Institute for the preceding year,
  3. receive reports from the Vice Presidents of the Institute when substantive activities have occurred within their respective scopes of activity since the last meeting of the General Assembly,
  4. each year elect to the Board one Director at-Large on a staggered basis from each of three Member Societies from different geographical regions (Europe-Africa, Pan-America, and Asia-Pacific),
  5. monitor and approve the technical work of the Institute,
  6. develop recommendations for accomplishing the Key Goals and Principal Objectives of the Institute,
  7. approve any changes proposed by the Board of Directors in the amounts of the annual payments to the Institute by the Member Societies,
  8. approve all applications for membership by professional societies and for changes in membership status by Member Societies after the applications have been reviewed by the Board of Directors,
  9. approve all terminations of membership upon the recommendation of the Board of Directors, and
  10. review the Institute's Bylaws and approve amendments to the Rules of the Institute.

12.4 Technical work of the Institute

The technical work for which the General Assembly shall be primarily responsible relates to the development and implementation of long term technical initiatives and short term tasks and to the publication program of the Institute.

Recommendations and formal I-INCE reports of the technical work of the Institute shall be submitted to the Board of Directors for implementation and publication. Procedures for publication of the Institute's documents shall be established by the Board and incorporated in the Rules of the Institute.

12.5 Voting rights

A Corresponding Member of a Member Society shall have one vote at a meeting of the General Assembly. A Director of the Institute shall have one vote at a meeting of the General Assembly.

A Director of the Institute shall have one vote at a meeting of the General Assembly.

Only Directors and the Corresponding Members of Member Societies or their official substitute who are present at a General assembly may vote (no proxy voting).

Article 13. INTERNATIONAL CONGRESSES ON NOISE CONTROL ENGINEERING

13.1 Continuation of the INTER-NOISE series

The Institute shall act to assure the continuation of the INTER-NOISE series of annual international congresses on noise control engineering in the countries of the Member Societies.

13.2 Organization

After due consideration, the Board of Directors shall invite a Member Society (or a group of Member Societies) to host an INTER-NOISE Congress by undertaking the organization of such a Congress. The organization of the Congress shall conform to those Instructions of the Institute that prescribe the procedures to be followed. Such Instructions shall be revised frequently to reflect improvements that have been made, or should be made, to the organization of an INTER-NOISE Congress.

To assist the Board in making its decisions, a Congress Selection Committee has been established. The chair of the Congress Selection Committee shall normally be the President-Elect. The membership and procedures of the Congress Selection Committee shall be specified in the Rules of the Institute.

All legal and financial obligations related to, and in connection with, an INTER-NOISE Congress rest with the Member Society (or Member Societies) that accepts the invitation to organize an INTER-NOISE Congress. A letter of agreement shall be co-signed by the I-INCE President and an authorized representative of the host Member Society. The letter shall detail all financial arrangements for the Congress, including payments to the Institute from the registration fees that are collected (see Section 15.3).

Article 14. INCOME

14.1 Sources of income

Sources of income to the Institute are:

  1. annual payments by the Member Societies, Institutional Members, and Sustaining Members;
  2. fees paid to the I-INCE Treasurer by the person responsible for the finances of an INTER-NOISE Congress. The fee shall be based on the total number of paid registrants at the Congress. Such fees are used to defray the cost of the services provided by the Institute;
  3. special gifts and grants;
  4. interest on the reserve funds of the Institute.

14.2 Annual payments

The annual payments for each Member Society, Institutional Member, and Sustaining Member shall be established by the Board of Directors and approved by the General Assembly. The amounts of the payments shall be as given in the Rules of the Institute.

In each calendar year, payments shall be invoiced to the membership of the Institute by the I-INCE Treasurer no later than February 15. All payments shall be in a currency specified on the invoice and shall be payable to the International Institute of Noise Control Engineering. The payments shall be transmitted to the Treasurer for deposit in the Institute's bank account, or accounts, as ordered by the Board of Directors.

If the Treasurer does not receive payment for any year by April 15, the Treasurer shall issue a past-due reminder invoice. If payment for a given calendar year is not received by October 15 in that year, the membership may be terminated upon the recommendation of the Board of Directors and the approval of the General Assembly.

14.3 Fees from INTER-NOISE Congresses

The amount to be paid to the Treasurer from the registration fees collected at an INTER-NOISE Congress shall be established by the Board of Directors and reviewed by the General Assembly.

These fees shall be paid to the I-INCE Treasurer in the currency specified on the invoice within three (3) months after the close of an INTER-NOISE Congress.

Article 15. OPERATING EXPENSES

Operating expenses for the Institute shall be those incurred to operate the Secretariat and the Treasurer's office, and support other initiatives of the Instiute.

The President and the Secretary-General may receive discretionary funds from the Institute to cover out-of-pocket expenses incurred on behalf of the Board or the General Assembly. The Institute shall not reimburse any other expenses unless specifically authorized in advance by the Board of Directors.

The policy of the Institute is to not pay any salaries.

Retired members of the Board of Directors may request partial reimbursement for travel expenses incurred to attend Board meetings, and such requests will be considered and acted upon by the Board.

Article 16. ANNUAL BUDGET

The Treasurer shall prepare a draft budget showing estimated income and planned operating expenses (and any known exceptional expenses) for the fiscal year following an annual meeting of the Board of Directors.

The draft budget shall be submitted to the President not later than two months before the annual meeting of the Board of Directors.

The Board shall approve a fiscal year's budget not later than December 31 of the prior year.

Article 17. FISCAL YEAR

The fiscal year of the Institute shall be the calendar year.

Article 18. INDEPENDENT AUDITOR

An independent auditor of the Institute's financial records shall be selected by the President and approved by the Board of Directors for a specified term of engagement.

Article 19. LIABILITIES

The liability of a Member Society for the debts or other obligations of the Institute shall not exceed an additional one-year's annual payment by the Member Society to the Institute. A Director or officer acting in the affairs of the Institute in good faith, and with ordinary diligence and reasonable discretion, has no personal liability for the debts, liabilities, or other obligations of the Institute.

Article 20. AMENDMENTS

The Board of Directors may amend these Bylaws, with revisions to be reviewed by the General Assembly. Action initiated by the General Assembly to change a Bylaw requires a two-thirds majority of the votes by the designated Member Society representatives present and voting on a proposed amendment.

Article 21. DISSOLUTION

At a meeting of the Board where a quorum has been established, the Board of Directors has the right to dissolve the Institute by an affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the Directors then in office. In the event of dissolution, any remaining assets shall be divided among the Member Societies to the extent permitted by Swiss Civil Law.

Article 24. RULES OF THE INSTITUTE

The Board of Directors shall establish and publish appropriate Rules for operating and governing the Institute. The Rules shall be separate from, but consistent with, these Bylaws. New and revised rules shall be reviewed and approved by the General Assembly. Action by the General Assembly. Action initiated by the General Assembly to change a Rule requires a two-thirds majority of the votes by the designated Member Society representatives present and voting on a proposed amendment.

The Rules of the Institute shall be maintained by the Secretariat. A copy of the latest issues of the Rules, Instructions, and Bylaws shall be posted on the I-INCE website and should be available at meetings of the Board of Directors and the General Assembly.

Article 23. EFFECTIVE DATE

These Bylaws were approved by the Institute's Board of Directors via email ballot in 2017 April and reviewed by the General Assembly on 2017 August 27. They shall be effective upon completion of review by the General Assembly. These Bylaws supersede previous editions dated 1974 September 20, 1978 June 23, 1989 February 01, 1997 August 24, 1998 November 14, 2003 August 24, 2005 August 7, 2012 August 18, and 2014 November 15.